Dedoose Publications

Dedoose has been field-tested and journal-proven by leading academic institutions and market researchers worldwide. Thousands of prominent researchers across the US and abroad have benefited from early versions of Dedoose in their qualitative and mixed methods work and have laid an outstanding publication and report trail along the way.

Education Based Publications

Entertainment Venue Visiting and Commercial Sex in China

Lin, C. Lieber, E. (2010)

International Journal of Sexual Health

Entertainment venues in China play an important role in the sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV epidemic. Most previous studies have focused on sex workers working in entertainment venues, but little is known about their clients. This study investigated the perceptions and behavior of the patrons visiting entertainment venues. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 male market vendors who visited entertainment venues at least once in the past 3 months in an eastern city in China. Information about their risky behavior, attitude toward commercial sex, and STD/HIV prevention approaches was collected. Saunas, karaoke bars, and massage centers are the most frequently visited entertainment venues.
Education Based Publications

Measures of Interobserver Agreement: Calculation Formulas and Distribution Effects

House, Alvin E., House, Betty J., & Campbell, Martha B. (1981)

Calculation formulas and distribution effects Journal of Behavioral Assessment, 3(1): 37-57

Discusses issues, types, and calculations for inter-rater reliability. Seventeen measures of association for observer reliability (interobserver agreement) are reviewed and computational forumals are given in a common notational system. An empirical comparison of 10 of these measures is made over a range of potential reliability check results.
Education Based Publications

International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches

Onwueguzie, Johnson, and Collins 2009 (2008)

Sample article abstracts: Onwueguzie, Johnson, and Collins 2009 We provide a philosophical justification for analyzing qualitative and quantitative data within the same study. First, we present several recent typologies of analyses in social science research that incorporate both monomethod (i.e. purely quantitative research or purely qualitative research) and mixed research studies. Second, we discuss what has been referred to as the fundamental principle of empirical data analysis, wherein both qualitative and quantitative data analysis techniques are shaped by an attempt to analyze data in a way that yields at least one of five types of generalizations. Third, building on the frameworks of Denzin and Lincoln (2005), Heron and Reason (1997) and Johnson and Onwuegbuzie (2004), we compare and contrast three qualitative-based paradigms (i.e. constructivism, critical theory, participatory), one quantitative-based paradigm (i.e. postpositivism) and one mixed research-based paradigm (i.e. pragmatism) with respect to three axiomatic components (i.e. ontological, epistemological and methodological foundations) and seven issues (i.e. nature of knowledge, knowledge accumulation, goodness or quality criteria, values, ethics, inquirer posture and training). Also, we link each paradigm to data analysis strategies. Fourth, we illustrate similarities in goals between some qualitative and quantitative analyses; in so doing, we deconstruct the strong claim that analysis must be either qualitative or quantitative and illustrate that regardless of perspective (e.g. postpositivist or constructivist), both qualitative and quantitative data can be jointly analyzed. Finally, we compare and contrast 11 mixed research paradigms/worldviews, linking them to mixed analysis strategies, thereby situating mixed analyses in the philosophy of social science and promoting mixed research as a distinctive methodology. Cameron 2009 A new era in research methods is emerging and has been quietly lauded by several emerging authorities in the field of mixed methods research. Like the mythology of the phoenix, mixed methods research has arisen out of the ashes of the paradigm wars to become the third methodological movement (Cameron & Miller 2007). The fields of applied social science and evaluation are among those which have shown the greatest popularity and uptake of mixed methods research designs. This article provides a brief overview of the rise of mixed methods research, its usage in business and management fields and its relationship to the philosophy of pragmatism. Typologies of mixed methods research designs are discussed and a case study of a sequential mixed model research design in the human resource development (HRD) field is presented. Issues related to design, analytical processes and display arising from utilising this particular mixed method research design are discussed. As a consequence, the article contains several Tables and Figures which exemplify display options that may assist those researchers who are considering utilising a mixed method research design.
Medical Based Publications

Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: a Mixed-Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples

David Henry, Allison B. Dymnicki, Nathaniel Mohatt, James Allen, James G. Kelly (2015)

Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed-methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed-methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a “real-world” example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities.
Education Based Publications

Reasoning with Numbers

Handwerker, W. Penn & Borgatti, Stephen P. (1998)

H. R. Bernard (Ed.), Handbook of Methods in Cultural Anthropology, pp. 549-593. Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press.

Presents a comprehensive set of techniques for representing the world through numbers and argues that there are many things to be missed when neglecting these approaches. With a focus on “answering research questions,” the authors weave this presentation into a discussion of perspective and methodological decisions from various fields. Finishes with specific illustrations for many techniques and how the particular approach can move your research forward.
Education Based Publications

Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Research: How is it Done?

Bryman, Alan (2006)

Qualitative Research, 6(1), 97-113

Draws on a content analysis of methods and design from 232 articles using combined methods. Examine and discusses the rationales provide for employing mixed-methods and whether they correspond to actual practice.
Education Based Publications

Logistic Regression

Garson, G. David (2008)

Overview and how-to guide for specifying and interpreting the results of logistic regression. Logistic regression can be used to predict a dependent variable on the basis of continuous and/or categorical independents and to determine the percent of variance in the dependent variable • explained by the independents; to rank the relative importance of independents; to assess interaction effects; and to understand the impact of covariate control variables. Logistic regression applies maximum likelihood estimation after transforming the dependent into a logit variable (the natural log of the odds of the dependent occurring or not). In this way, logistic regression estimates the probability of a certain event occurring. Note that logistic regression calculates changes in the log odds of the dependent, not changes in the dependent itself as OLS regression does.
Education Based Publications

Unleashing Frankenstein’s Monster? The Use of Computers in Qualitative Research.

Hesse-Biber, Sharlene (2004)

H. R. Bernard (Ed.), Handbook of Methods in Cultural Anthropology, pp. 549-593. In S. N. Hesse-Biber and P. Leavy (Eds.), Approaches to Qualitative Research: A Reader on Theory and Practice, pp. 535-545.

The use of qualitative data analysis software has been increasing in recent years. A number of qualitative researchers have raised questions concerning the effect of such software in the research process. Fears have been expressed that the use of the computer for qualitative analysis may interfere with the relationship between the researcher and the research process itself by distancing the researcher from both the data and the respondent. Others have suggested that the use of a quantitative tool, the computer, would lead to data dredging, quantification of results, and loss of the "art" of qualitative analysis. In this study of 12 qualitative researchers, including both faculty members and graduate students, we have found that these fears are exaggerated. Users of qualitative data analysis software in most cases use the computer as an organizational, time-saving tool and take special care to maintain close relationships with both the data and the respondents. It is an open question, however, whether or not the amount of time and effort saved by the computer enhance research creativity. The research findings are mixed in this area. At issue is the distinction between creativity and productivity when computer methods are used. Computer packages targeted at qualitative and mixed methods researcg data are readily available and the methodology sections of research articles indicate that they are being utilised by some health researchers. The purpose of this article is to draw together concerns which have been expressed by researchers and critics and to place these within the perspective of 'framing' (MacLachlan & Reid, 1994). Here, the focus becomes the frame that these computer programs impose on qualitative data. Inevitably, all data sets are disturbed by the techniques of collection and the conceptual and theoretical frames imposed, but computer framing not only distorts physically but also imposes an often minimally acknowledged frame constructed by the metaphors and implicit ideology of the program. This frame is in opposition to most of the recent changes in qualitative data interpretation, which have emphasised context, thick description and exposure of the minimally disturbed voices of participants.
Education Based Publications

Scientific Foundations of Qualitative Research

Ragin, Charles C., Nagel, Joane, & White, Patricia (2004)

National Science Foundation Report

Report generated by a NSF workshop on qualitative research methods. Two main sections: 1) provide a general guidance for developing qualitative research project and 2) recommendations for strengthening qualitative research. This report is organized into two major sections — general guidance for developing qualitative research projects and recommendations for strengthening qualitative research. The intent of the first section of the report is to serve as a primer to guide both investigators developing qualitative proposals and reviewers evaluating qualitative research projects. The second section of the report presents workshop recommendations for designing, evaluating, supporting, and strengthening qualitative research.
Geography Based Publications

Evaluating Qualitative Research in Social Geography: Establishing ‘Rigour’ in Interview Analysis

Baxter, Jamie; Eyles, John (1997)

A review of 31 empirical and eighteen substantive papers by qualitative social geographers mainly using in-depth interviews reveals little explicit reference to the principle(s) adopted to enhance ‘rigour’ and to ensure meaningful inference. Given the modest explicit discussion of evaluative criteria in these papers, a scheme from evaluation research itself is critically reviewed. A set of evaluation questions derived from this review and their application to an empirical piece of qualitative work frame an argument for a general set of criteria rather than rigid rules for assessing qualitative work. Such criteria can serve as anchor points for qualitative evaluation.
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