Dedoose Publications


Dedoose has been field-tested and journal-proven by leading academic institutions and market researchers worldwide. Thousands of prominent researchers across the US and abroad have benefited from early versions of Dedoose in their qualitative and mixed methods work and have laid an outstanding publication and report trail along the way.

Sociology Based Publications

Qualitative Data Analysis

Seidel, John V. (1998)

Qualis Research

This is an essay on the basic processes in qualitative and mixed methods data analysis (QDA). It serves two purposes. It is a simple introduction for the newcomer of QDA. QDA is a process of noticing, collecting and thinking about interesting things. The purpose of this model is to show that there is asimple foundation to the complex and rigorous practice of QDA. Once you grasp this foundation you can move in many different directions. The idea for this model came from a conversation with one of my former teachers, Professor Ray Cuzzort. Ray was teaching an undergraduate statistics course and wanted to boil down the complexity of statistics to a simple model. His solution was to tell the students that statistics was a symphony based on two notes: means and standard deviations. I liked the simplicity and elegance of his formulation and decided to try and come up with a similar idea for describing QDA. The result was the idea that QDA is a symphony based on three notes: Noticing, Collecting, and Thinkingabout interesting things. While there is great diversity in the practice of QDA I would argue that all forms of QDA are based on these three “notes.” The QDA process is not linear. When you do QDA you do not simply Notice, Collect, and then Think about things, and then write a report. Rather, the process has the following characteristics: -Iterative and Progressive: The process is iterative and progressive because it is a cycle that keeps repeating. For example, when you are thinking about things you also start noticing new things in the data. You then collect and think about these new things. In principle the process is an infinite spiral. -Recursive: The process is recursive because one part can call you back to a previous part. For example, while you are busy collecting things you might simultaneously start noticing new things to collect. -Holographic: The process is holographic in that each step in the process contains the entire process. For example, when you first notice things you are already mentally collecting and thinking about those things. Thus, while there is a simple foundation to QDA, the process of doing qualitative data analysis is complex. The key is to root yourself in this foundation and the rest will flow from this foundation.
Geography Based Publications

Re-thinking research on born globals

Coviello, Nicole (2015)

Knight and Cavusgil’s Journal of International Business Studies Decade Award-winning article offers numerous contributions to international business research. As one example, it advances cross-disciplinary conversation about entrepreneurial internationalization. A critical review of their study reveals, however, that certain findings require reinterpretation. This commentary does so, discussing the resultant implications and the question of when it is (in)appropriate to use the term “born global”. Parts of Knight and Cavusgil are then used as a foundation to identify research questions at the level of the firm. Finally, points from Cavusgil and Knight’s retrospective are used to argue that we need greater understanding of the individual(s) that are central to the firm’s internationalization behaviour. Suggestions for research are made by drawing on concepts and theory from the entrepreneurship, innovation and psychology literatures.
Sociology Based Publications

The Integration of Fieldwork and Survey Methods

Sieber, Sam (1973)

American Journal of Sociology, 78(6): 1335-1359

A historical antagonism between the proponents of qualitative fieldwork and of survey research has prevented recognition of the benefits to be gained by employing both methods in the same study. Each method can be greatly strenthenedby appealing to the unique qualities of the other. Through examination of a number of cases in which the methods have been integrated, it is possible to discern important benefits is design, data collection, and analysis. In order tofully exploit the advantages of integration, however, adjustments in traditional procedures will have to be made, thereby yielding a new style of social research. Others citing this work make clear and strong arguments for the value of work emerging under the frame of 'mixed methods research.' As found in Christense, Robinson, and Simons, 2016 'The Application of Mixed Methods: using a Crossover Analysis Strategy for Product Developement in Real Estate,' 'Although the definition of mixed methods research still remains a contested area, most researchers agree that mixed methods research combines qualitative and quantitative data collection and data analysis within a single study (Johnson & Onwuegbuzie, 2004; Teddlie & Tashakkori, 2003) to better understand research problems by enabling breadth and depth of understanding and corroboration' (Johnson, Onwuegbuzie and Turner, 2007: 56). The mixed methods movement is gaining popularity in many disciplines (Patton, 1990; Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003) and, emphasizing the value and advantages of mixed methods research, the integration of quantitative and qualitative research methods has been made in sociology (Sieber, 1973), education evaluation (Cook & Reichardt, 1979; Greene, Caracelli, & Graham, 1989; Rossman & Wilson, 1985), health sciences (O'Cathain, 2009), sustainable tourism (McGehee et al, 2013), and management and organizational research (Aguinis et al., 2010; Currall & Towler, 2003; Edmondson & McManus, 2007; Molina-Azorin, 2012). The rise in uptake may be due in part to the methodological pluralism, which frequently results in a better understanding of research problems than a mono-method design (Molina-Azorin, 2012). ABSTRACT: Increasingly, researchers are recognizing the benefits of expanding research designs to include both quantitative and qualitative methods to gain deeper insight into the reasons behind various research phenomena. Entrepreneurial development of market oriented products can benefit from the use of both methods to gain an understanding of complex issues influencing the development of new products. This research offers a philosophical argument for utilizing a mixed methods approach in the development of quantitative instruments and demonstrates how the use of a crossover analysis strategy expands the traditionally applied, linear decision process to improve both the fidelity and validity of market-driven products. The research then demonstrates how a mixed methods crossover analysis strategy enables both quantitative and qualitative data to iteratively inform the revisions, adaptation and development of a (quantitative) market-oriented product.
Education Based Publications

HIV/STD Stigmatization Fears as Health-Seeking Barriers in China

Lieber, E. et all. (2006)

Internationally, stigma prohibits effective HIV/STD identification, prevention, and care. Interviews with 106 persons in an urban center in Eastern China, some known to have engaged in stigmatized risk acts (sex workers, STD clinic patients) and some vulnerable forstigmatization fears to influence health-seeking behaviors (market employees, rural-to-urban migrants). Interviews focused on community norms, values, beliefs, and emotional and behavioral reactions to HIV/STD stigmatization related events. Attributions for infection were found to mark individual’s failure to adhere to sexuality norms; define a condition warrantingthe avoidance of infected persons and dismissal by medical professionals; and promote anticipation of negative emotions (i.e., shame, fear, and embarrassment) and devalued social roles and status.
Education Based Publications

Integrating Data Analysis in Mixed Methods Research

Bazeley, Patricia (2009)

Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 3(3), 203-207

Encourages a thinking about mixed methods work based on a qualitative-quantitative continuum. Focuses primarily on strategy for mixed methods data analysis at various stages of the process rather than just integration at the end. Discusses the use of computer solutions to assist in the process. Although the epistemological arguments of the "paradigm wars" sharpened our thinking about issues related to mixed methodology, their lingering legacy has been to slow the progress of integration methods.
Education Based Publications

A Systems Approach to Qualitative Data Management and Analysis

MacQueen, Kathleen M. & Milstein, Bobby (1999)

Field Methods, 11(1): 27-39

Introduces and illustrates a systematic approach to qualitative data management from a database architecture perspective. Discusses four main types of information collected in qualitative research: information about primary sources, information from primary sources, secondary information generated by coders, and information about the coders and how quantitative approaches can be used to evaluate qualitative analysis.
Policy Based Publications

Child Care Instability and the Effort to Sustain a Working Daily Routine: Evidence from the New Hope Ethnographic Study of Low-Income Families

Lowe, E. Weisner, T., Geis, S. & Huston, A (2005) Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, In C. Cooper, C. Garcia-Coll, T. Bartko, H. Davis, C. Chatman. (2005)

Hills of Gold. Pp. 121-144 Diverse Pathways Through Middle Childhood

Background Unstable child care arrangements can lead to negative consequences both for parents’ employment and for children’s well-being, particularly among families already struggling with low incomes and variable work schedules. This paper draws upon longitudinal ethnographic information from a sample of 44 working poor families who participated in the New Hope Demonstration, an experimental intervention in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, that provided a monthly earnings supplement, child care vouchers, and health care coverage to low-income parents if the parent worked 30 or more hours a week. The families in this study are representative of a much larger sample of families who participated in the New Hope antipoverty program. The paper examines three questions: (1) How much change and instability in child care arrangements do the families in our sample experience? (2) What features of everyday family life, and the family cultural ecology, are generally associated with change and instability? (3) How do subsidy programs available to these families like New Hope and Wisconsin Works, the state’s welfare reform initiative, promote or reduce stability of child care over time? And how can this best be studied from qualitative and mixed methods perspectives. Key Findings Changing child care arrangements were pervasive, with 84 percent of sample families experiencing a change at least once in the two years of follow-up. Most importantly, between about one-third and one-half of families experienced unplanned changes in child care arrangements during the follow-up period. Shifts in the family cultural ecology were the most important influence on stability in child care, including, in order of importance: – stability of work and job circumstances or in the household’s social supports; – assistance and stability of informal care providers; – the adequacy of material and social resources, including child care subsidies; – consensus or conflict among family members regarding child care; – the congruence between available child care and parents’ beliefs, goals, and values. Families’ descriptions of the difficulties they face meeting current child care subsidy rules and administrative hurdles suggest that modifications in the subsidy systems could render them more effective in assisting low-income working families. Conclusions and Implications The level of child care instability observed in this paper raises concerns. This ethnographic study extends what has been learned from previous research on child care instability by providing insight into the complex underlying reasons that account for the observed high levels of instability. The structure of subsidy policies could help mitigate some of the reasons for unplanned child care instability uncovered here. For example, child care support tied exclusively to work or income levels can lead to more instability since work is unstable in many cases. Establishing a family’s child care eligibility annually (as opposed to basing eligibility on current work effort, for example) would ensure that a child could remain in the same program for longer periods of time. These periods could be tied to school year cycles, for instance. Based on how parents talked about child care subsidies and how they responded to the current structure of the system, it is likely that, if child care supports were more stable and certain, the benefits of using child care subsidies would increase and the families’ ability to sustain their routines would improve.
Education Based Publications

Photo Interviews: Eliciting Data through Conversations with Children

Cappello, Marva (2005)

Field Methods, 17(2): 170-182

Photo interviewing is a useful method for qualitative and mixed methods inquiry in classrooms and with children. The idea of photo elicitation is especially relevant when interviewing children who have preset ideas about interacting with adults. Interviewing children is complicated by the school setting, in which children perceive the researcher to be some sort of teacher. This study explores the potential of photo interviewing to get around these problems, with data from one study of children’s perceptions about classroom writing. When conducting photo elicitation interviews (PEI), researchers introduce photographs into the interview context. Although PEI has been employed across a wide variety of disciplines and participants, little has been written about the use of photographs in interviews with children. In 'Photo Elicitation Interview (PEI): Using Photos to Elicit Children's Perspectives,' by Iris Epstein, a Bonnie Stevens, Patricia McKeever, and Sylvain Baruchel, the authors review the use of PEI in a research study that explored the perspectives on camp of children with cancer. In particular, they review some of the methodological and ethical challenges, including (a) who should take the photographs and (b) how the photographs should be integrated into the interview. Although some limitations exist, PEI in its various forms can challenge participants, trigger memory, lead to new perspectives, and assist with building trust and rapport.
Education Based Publications

Mixed Methods Sampling - A Typology with Examples

Teddlie, Charles, & Yu, Fen (2007)

Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(1): 77-100

Discusses mixed methods sampling techniques in creative and effective ways.
Medical Based Publications

Meta-integration for synthesizing data in a systematic mixed studies review: insights from research on autism spectrum disorder

Frantzen, Kirsten Krabek; Fetters, Michael D. (2015)

Systematic reviews conducted using either meta-analysis or meta-synthesis are well established methodological procedures for combining data and results across different quantitative or qualitative studies. Recently, a third option for systematic reviews has emerged. Systematic mixed studies reviews combine data and results across quantitative, qualitative and mixed method studies. An important challenge is how to integrate the quantitative, qualitative and mixed method studies. Here, we introduce the concept of “meta-integration”. Our overarching aim is to define and illustrate the novel concept of meta-integration as applied to convergent systematic mixed studies reviews using examples from our research on parental self-perception and autism spectrum disorder. Specifically, we present a typology for meta-integration procedures at two levels, both basic and advanced meta-integration. Three models, namely, basic convergent meta-integration, basic convergent qualitative meta-integration, and basic convergent quantitative meta-integration, combine quantitative and qualitative studies. Three additional models, namely, advanced convergent qualitative meta-integration, advanced convergent qualitative meta-integration, and advanced convergent quantitative meta-integration, combine quantitative, qualitative and mixed method studies. The models generally follow six steps: (1) categorize data sources; (2) transform the data; (3) conduct intra-method synthesis; (4) conduct inter-method synthesis and/or integration; (5) organize results and assess fit; and (6) draw final conclusions. One basic and one advanced model do not involve data transformation. These models for conducting convergent meta-integration in systematic mixed studies reviews provide guidance for researchers to apply rigorous and coherent methodology. Following these procedures can substantively improve the quality of systematic reviews seeking to use quantitative, qualitative and mixed method studies.
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